POLYPS AND TUMORS IN THE PELVIC ORGANS
A polyp is a non cancerous outgrowth, usually occurring on the inner lining of the uterus, on the endometrium.
A tumor can be more serious if cancerous. However, most of the times, the tumor is benign.
In either case, these outgrowths can affect the fertility of the woman adversely, and need to be treated.
Polyps and tumors Polyps and Tumors in the Pelvic Organs may rarely cause pain and/or discomfort.
However, almost all tumors and polyps cause infertility, and sometimes an abnormal discharge along with bleeding from the vagina. It is important to consult a doctor immediately in such cases.
Cancers are diagnosed using the following methods-
- The tumor is first diagnosed using different imaging techniques, like MRI, Ultrasound, etc.
- After this, a biopsy is conducted to detect the nature of the cancerous cells.
- Depending on this diagnosis, further treatment procedures are determined.
Cervical cancer is determined using a Pap Smear Test, in which a sample of the cervical cells is scraped by the doctor and tested for any abnormalities.
- Cervical cancer is caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which spreads through sexual contact.
- Causes of other tumors may vary between abnormal exposure to radiations, carcinogenic chemicals, medications, etc.
Cancer of the pelvic organs is treated by the following methods
- Staging surgery - removal of tissue samples from different Pelvic organs to determine the proliferation of the cancer.
- Debulking - Removal of maximum portion of the tumor so that less tumor is left to be treated by chemotherapy.
- Total Hysterectomy - Removal of the uterus and the cervix.
- Radical Hysterectomy - Removal of uterus, cervix and a part of the vagina. In some cases, the ovaries, Fallopian tube and/or nearby lymph nodes may also be surgically removed.
- Salpingo-oophorectomy - Removal of one or both ovaries and Fallopian tubes.
- Lymph node removal - Removal of all lymph nodes in the neighboring region of the pelvic organs.
In case of Ovarian cancer, the following treatment procedure is followed
- The choice of treatment depends upon the long term wishes of the patient in addition to the level of severity of the cancer
- In case of surgical procedures, part or whole of the ovary/ies may be surgically removed (Oophorectomy)
- In most cases, surgery is preceded and followed by sessions of chemotherapy
- Radiation therapy may also be used to destroy the cancerous cells using high energy focused radiations
Endometrial cancer can be treated using hormonal therapy, wherein the endometrium is forced to be shed by the body using human sex hormones, in addition to radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
- The surgical procedure aims at removing as much of the tumor as possible.
- After this, appropriate methods such as chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are used to remove the rest of the tumor
- In case of hysterectomy or other procedures involving total removal of the organ, further procedures are not required