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  • Dr.Niraj Mahajan
  • Dr.Niraj Mahajan
  • Dr.Niraj Mahajan

    What is urogenital fistula?

    Abnormal connection between bladder, the female genital tract and the bladder, urethra, or ureters is known as a urogenital fistula.There are two common types of urogenital fistulas

    • Vesicovaginal fistula- vaginal fistula opening in urinary tract
    • Ureterovaginal fistulas- vaginal fistula opening in ureter

    Vesicovaginal fistula is about three times more common than ureterovaginal fistulas, however, in extremely rare conditions these two can occur simultaneously.


    A fistula starts with any kind of damage to the tissue and then opens up. Various causes for this can be:

    • surgery of vagina, anus or rectum
    • Hysterectomy
    •  inflammatory bowel disease
    • treatment for pelvic cancer
    • infected  episiotomy


    • urinary incontinence- inability to control urination
    • overflow incontinence
    • infected or sore genital area
    • foul-smelling discharge from vagina
    • foul-smelling gas from vagina

    Diagnosis tests

    • physical examination of the pelvic region
    • dye-test -A dye is injected into the bladder, and its path is traced using imaging techniques
    • blood test
    • urine analysis
    • X-ray
    • Endoscopy
    • MRI


    It is usually treated with surgery but before that certain treatments may be done so that the surgery is possible-

    • Medicine to heal the tissue
    • Colostomy to keep the fistula clear
    • Surgery

    It is necessary to take full care after surgery and see the doctor if there are any post-surgery rashes, tenderness, swelling or fever.

    Post surgery

    • After surgery, the patient will be asked to urinate to test the response of the bladder and urethra to the surgery.
    • An overnight stay is rarely needed after a laparoscopic surgery. However, in case of open surgery, the recovery period is longer.
    • There might be mild pain in the abdomen after the surgery, which is normal
    • The doctor should be reported to periodically after the surgery, to check for proper functioning of the bladder
    • Any bleeding or abnormal discharge from the vagina should be immediately reported to the doctor

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    Dr. Niraj Mahajan

    MD- Gynecologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon, Uro-gynecologist , Infertility specialist & Cosmetic Gynecologist.

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