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Hepatitis B Vaccine

By AdminPosted On 05-Oct-2016

1. How long does protection from Hepatitis B vaccine last?

a) 5 years
b) 10 years
c) 15 years
d) 20 years
e) 3 years

Correct Answer: d) 20 years. Studies indicate that immunologic memory remains intact for at least 20 years among healthy vaccinated individuals who initiated Hepatitis B vaccination >6 months of age. The vaccine confers long-term protection against clinical illness and chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. Cellular immunity appears to persist even though antibody levels might become low or decline below detectable levels.Among vaccinated cohorts who initiated Hepatitis B vaccination at birth, long-term follow-up studies are ongoing to determine the duration of vaccine-induced immunity.If the vaccine series was interrupted after the first dose, the second dose should be administered as soon as possible.The second and third doses should be separated by an interval of at least 8 weeks.If only the third dose is delayed, it should be administered as soon as possible. (Ref: CDC)

2. Hepatitis B vaccineBooster Dose

Are booster doses of Hepatitis B vaccine recommendedexcept for hemodialysis patients or for immunocompromised persons?

a) Yes
b) No

Correct Answer: b) No. For persons with normal immune status who have been vaccinated, booster doses are not recommended. Booster doses of Hepatitis B vaccine are recommended only in certain circumstances:For hemodialysis patients, the need for booster doses should be assessed by annual testing for antibody to Hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). A booster dose should be administered when anti-HBs levels decline to <10 mIU/mL.For other immunocompromised persons (e.g., HIV-infected persons, hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients, and persons receiving chemotherapy), the need for booster doses has not been determined. When anti-HBs levels decline to <10 mIU/mL, annual anti-HBs testing and booster doses should be considered for those with an ongoing risk for exposure. (Ref: CDC)

3. Can Hepatitis B vaccine be given during pregnancy or lactation?

a) Yes
b) No

Correct Answer: a) Yes. Hepatitis B vaccine contains no live virus, so neither pregnancy nor lactation should be considered a contraindication to vaccination of women. On the basis of limited experience, there is no apparent risk of adverse effects to developing fetuses when Hepatitis B vaccine is administered to pregnant women. Meanwhile, new HBV infection in a pregnant woman might result in severe disease for the mother and chronic infection for the newborn. (Ref: CDC)

4. Hepatitis Vaccine Serology

In a patient vaccinated with Hepatitis vaccine (B) the serology would reveal presence of which of the following in his serum

a) Anti IgM HBcAg
b) Anti HbsAG
c) Anti IgG HBcAg
d) Anti HbeAg

Correct Answer: b) Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs): The presence of anti-HBs is generally interpreted as indicating recovery and immunity from HBV infection. Anti-HBs also develops in a person who has been successfully vaccinated against Hepatitis B.

5. Immunization for Hepatitis B

30-year old woman delivered a healthy baby at 37 week of gestation. She was positive for HBsAG but negative for HBeAG. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment for the babya) Both active and passive immunization soon after birth b) Passive immunization soon after birth and active immunization at 1 year of age c) Only passive immunization soon after birth d) Only active immunization soon after birth e) Only passive immunization soon after 6 weeksCorrect Answer: a) Both active and passive immunization soon after birth . A controversy exists as to whether to give or not to give HBIG at birth to neonates born to HBeAg-negative, HBsAg-carrier mothers, owing to a lack of convincing evidence. A low (<1%) rate of HBsAg-positivity was observed in the children born to HBeAg-negative mothers with vaccinations only. HBIG administration in infants born to HBeAg-negative mothers has not been proven to reduce chronic HBV infection rates, but a benefit in preventing infantile fulminant hepatitis is still possible. Answer would be "d" in countries like Thailand and Taiwan because of their national guidelines. In Taiwan only if HBeAg positive then the answer would be "a".

6. Needle Stick Injury

A gynaecologist, who has received no recent immunizations, is stuck with a needle that had been used on the patient while performing cesarean section. Which of the following is this gynaecologist at greatest risk of contracting?

a) HIV
b) Hepatitis B
c) Hepatitis C
d) Scabies
e) Syphilis

Correct Answer: b) Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B carries the greatest risk of transmission, with 37 to 62% of exposed workers eventually showing seroconversion and 22 to 31% showing clinical Hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis C transmission rate has been reported at 1.8%, but newer, larger surveys have shown only a 0.5% transmission rate. The overall risk of HIV infection after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected material in the health care setting is 0.3%. 

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Dr. Niraj Mahajan

MD- Gynecologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon, Uro-gynecologist , Infertility specialist & Cosmetic Gynecologist.

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