Which tumour marker is the most specific for pancreatic carcinoma?
e) β-human chorionic gonadotropin
Correct Answer: d) CA19-9. For CA19-9 consider pancreatic carcinoma, although this is not suitable as a screening tool. CA125 is a frequently used biomarker for epithelial ovarian malignancy, and CA15-3 is a biomarker used for breast carcinoma.
a) Barium meal follow through
e) Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
Correct Answer: Poorly framed question. CT enteroclysis and MRI enteroclysis OR Endoscopy. Small intestinal tumours are also difficult to identify by means of diagnostic imaging. Until recently, barium enteroclysis (barium is sent through the tube directly into the small intestine) has been used as the best radiological possibility for detection of small bowel malignancies. Not only is the investigation time consuming and poorly tolerated by patients but it is also limited in its ability to accurately represent the mural and extramural portion of tumour and contribute to a high miss rate for small and/or flat lesions. Contemporary modern alternatives for investigation of small bowel tumours are multidetector CT and MRI techniques. With the development of multislice spiral computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography enteroclysis and magnetic resonance enteroclysis are widely used in the examination of the small bowel and diagnosis of small bowel tumours. Both, computed tomography and magnetic resonance enteroclysis, with three-dimensional imaging capabilities and excellent soft-tissue contrast can analyze the abnormalities of peripheral intestinal structure as well as the tunica mucosa. These two methods are even able to clearly reveal the localization, appearance, degree of mesenteric infiltration, and remote tumour metastasis, which increases our cognition of the imaging diagnosis for intestinal tumours. Endoscopy is the best method for investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. It has the advantage of direct visualisation of the mucosa, histology, and even therapeutic possibilities.
a) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
b) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
c) Burkitt’s lymphoma
d) Hodgkin’s disease
e) Histiocytosis X
Correct Answer: c) Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center.
Correct Answer: b) Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used for testicular cancer and ovarian germ cell tumors. Thiotepa, Treosulphan, Cyclophosphomide and Melphalan are alkylating agents.
c) GIT adverse effects
e) Bone marrow suppression
Correct Answer: d) Nephrotoxicity. It is a major concern. The dose is reduced when the patient's creatinine clearance is reduced. Adequate hydration and diuresis is used to prevent renal damage. The nephrotoxicity of platinum-class drugs seems to be related to reactive oxygen species.
a) Human papilloma virus
b) EB virus
c) Filo virus
d) Retro virus
e) Herpes virus
Correct Answer: c) Filo virus. W.H.O. estimated that 17.8% of human cancers were caused by infection, with 11.9% being caused by one of seven different viruses. The importance of this is that these cancers might be easily prevented through vaccination (e.g., papillomavirus vaccines), diagnosed with simple blood tests, and treated with less-toxic antiviral compounds.
1. Hepatitis viruses, HBV and HCV - Hepatocellular carcinoma
2. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) - Tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukemia
3. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) - Cancers of cervix, anus, penis, vulva/vagina, and oropharyngeal cancer.
4. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8) - Kaposi’s sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus - Merkel cell carcinoma
6. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) - Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease and Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
7. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV or HHV-5) - Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
Occurrence of an excessive fibrocollagenous stroma in neoplasm is known as
Correct Answer: b) Desmoplasia. It is the growth of fibrous or connective tissue. It is also called desmoplastic reaction to emphasize that it is secondary to an insult. Desmoplasia may occur around a neoplasm, causing dense fibrosis around the tumor. Desmoplasia is usually only associated with malignant neoplasms, which can evoke a fibrosis response by invading healthy tissue. Fibroplasia is the formation of fibrous tissue, as normally occurs in the healing of wounds.
"Authored By Dr.Niraj Mahajan"
MD- Gynecologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon, Uro-gynecologist , Infertility specialist & Cosmetic Gynecologist.Read more [+]