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Pathology MCQ

By AdminPosted On 05-Oct-2016

1. Decidua : Pathology MCQ

After parturition, endometrium regenerates from the decidual:


a) Basal zone.

b) Compact zone.

c) Functional zone.

d) Parietal layer.

e) Spongy zone.

Correct Answer: a) Basal zone. The separation of placenta occurs through the spongy layer while the endometrium regenerates again from the basal layer.


2. “Shift” cells refer to? : Pathology MCQ

a) Older RBC’s

b) Prematurely released reticulocytes

c) Normoblasts

d) Any of the above

Correct Answer: b) Prematurely released reticulocytes. In anemia, polychromatophilic macrocytes in PBF represent prematurely released reticulocytes referred to as ‘shift cells’. With intense stimulation of erythropoiesis there is premature release of reticulocytes from the bone marrow into peripheral blood. These are larger and contain more reticulum than normal reticulocytes. It helps in the calculation of “reticulocyte production index” (RPI) which corrects the reticulocyte count, taking into account the presence of anemia and the presence of shift reticulocytes producing a more accurate indicator of red cell production.


3. Segmentation of Neutrophils

Excessive segmentation of nucleus of neutrophils is a manifestation of?


a) Folate or vitamin B12 deficiency

b) Iron deficiency

c) Thalassemia

d) Repeated blood transfusion

Correct Answer: a) Folate or vitamin B12 deficiency. Nucleus of neutrophils normally contains up to four segments. Excessive segmentation (>5 nuclear lobes) is seen in folate or vitamin B12 deficiency & congenital neutropenia syndrome of warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections & myelokathexis (WHIM).


4. Small Intestine : Pathology MCQ

All of the following are present in mucosa of small intestine except


a) Paneth cells

b) Goblet cells

c) Neck mucosa cells

d) Stem cells

Correct Answer: c) Neck mucosa cells or Foveolar cells are mucus-producing cells which cover the inside of the stomach, protecting it from the corrosive nature of gastric acid. These cells line the gastric mucosa and gastric pits. Stem cells of the intestinal mucosa line the walls of the crypts and continually replenish the intestinal epithelium, completely replacing all the absorptive cells and goblet cells approximate once every four days. These cells are inconspicuous when resting, but mitotic figures (intensely basophilic condensed chromatin) are common and easily noticed in the crypts of the small intestine.


5. GI Malignancy : Pathology MCQ

Gastrointestinal stromal malignancy arises from which of the following


a) Smooth muscle

b) Interstial cells

c) Nerve cells of cajal

d) Vascular Endothelium

Correct Answer: c) Nerve cells of cajal. Gastrointestinal stromal malignancy arise from interstitial cells of Cajal, that are normally part of the autonomic nervous system of the intestine. They serve a pacemaker function in controlling motility.


6. Antigen presenting cell : Pathology MCQ

Antigen presenting cells are all of the following except


a) Astrocytes

b) Endothelial cells

c) Epithelial cells

d) Langerhans cells

Correct Answer: a) Astrocytes are glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigens complexed with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation. Vascular endothelial cells is a non-professional APC. Langerhans cells are dendritic cells (antigen-presenting immune cells) of the skin and mucosa. Certain activated epithelial cells are very efficient Professional APCs.


7. Complement fixing Ig

The complement is fixed best by which of the following immunoglobulins

a) IgG

b) IgM

c) IgA

d) IgD

Correct Answer: b) IgM. Serum IgM exists as a pentamer in mammals, predominates in primary immune responses to most antigens, is the most efficient complement fixing immunoglobulin. Thus, IgM antibodies are very efficient in leading to the lysis of microorganisms. IgG also fixes complement – Not all subclasses fix equally well; IgG4 does not fix complement. Normally IgA does not fix complement, unless aggregated. Because of its relative abundance and excellent specificity toward antigens, IgG is the principle antibody used in immunological research and clinical diagnostics.


8. Which immunoglobulin crosses the placenta ?

a) IgA

b) IgD

c) IgE

d) IgG

e) IgM


Correct Answer: d) IgG. IgG is the smallest of the immunoglobulins that can cross the placenta. It is the only isotype that has receptors to facilitate passage through the human placenta, thereby providing protection to the fetus in utero. Along with IgA secreted in the breast milk, residual IgG absorbed through the placenta provides the neonate with humoral immunity before its own immune system develops. Colostrum contains a high percentage of IgG, especially bovine colostrum.


9. Which immunoglobulin has the highest molecular weight ?

a) IgA

b) IgD

c) IgE

d) IgG

e) IgM

Correct Answer: e) IgM. IgM is the largest immunoglobulin, having an approximate molecular weight of 900 kDa and appears first in the response to initial exposure of antigens. Secretory IgA has the lowest molecular weight.


10. High levels of which immunoglobulin are found in breast milk ?

a) IgA

b) IgD

c) IgE

d) IgG

e) IgM

Correct Answer: a) IgA. All have been found in human milk, but by far the most abundant type is IgA, specifically the form known as secretory IgA. Infants who are bottle-fed have few means for battling ingested pathogens until they begin making secretory IgA on their own, often several weeks or even months after birth.

Contraception during Lactation


11. Non-keratinised epithelium : Pathology MCQ

Which structure is lined by non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium ?


a) Endocervix

b) Fallopian tubes

c) Skin

d) Ureters

e) Vagina


Correct Answer: e) Vagina. The endocervix is lined by columnar epithelium. Skin is lined by keratinised squamous epithelium. The fallopian tubes are lined by ciliary, and ureters by transitional epithelium.


12. Neutrophils “stick” to the endothelium through ?

a) Selectins

b) Integrins

c) Intercellular adhesion molecules

d) Opsonins

Correct Answer: b) Integrins. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are the bridges for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In response to chemotactic stimuli from injured tissues or bacterial products, neutrophil adhesiveness increases and they stick to the endothelium through integrins.


13. Cytokine : Pathology MCQ

Which of the following is a generic term for a protein or glycoprotein released by one cell population that acts as an intercellular mediator ?


a) Cytokine

b) Monokine

c) Lymphokine

d) Interleukin

e) Colony-stimulating factor


Correct Answer: a) Cytokine. Interleukins—The term interleukin derives from (inter-) “as a means of communication”, and (-leukin) “deriving from the fact that many of these proteins are produced by leukocytes and act on leukocytes”. The name is something of a relic, as interleukins are produced by a wide variety of body cells.


14. Dendritic cells : Pathology MCQ


Capturing, processing and presenting the antigen to T cells are the only functions of which type of cell ?


a) Dendritic cells

b) Mast cells

c) Natural killer cells

d) Neutrophils

e) Tissue macrophages


Correct Answer: a) Dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are an additional phagocytic cell type, which are derived from monocytes or lymphoid lineages. They are antigen-presenting cells.


15. Meckel’s diverticulum : Pathology MCQ

Yolk sac rapidly degenerates before birth. In rare occasions it may persist to develop into which condition ?


a) Gastrochiasis

b) Meckel’s diverticulum

c) Umbilical hernia

d) Vermiform appendix

e) Volvulus


Correct Answer: b) Meckel’s diverticulum. A part of the viteline duct within an abdominal wall persists, forming an omphalomesenteric fistula, omphalomesenteric cyst or a ligament. This was first described by J.F. Meckel in early 19th century. Volvulus is caused by abnormal rotation or fixation of the mid gut.


16. Which type of necrosis occurs in acute pancreatitis ?

a) Caseous necrosis

b) Coagulative necrosis

c) Colliquative necrosis

d) Fat necrosis

e) Gangrenous necrosis


Correct Answer: d) Fat necrosis. Coagulative necrosis occurs in myocardial infarction, colliquative necrosis occurs in cerebral infarction, caseous necrosis occurs in tuberculous infection and gangrenous necrosis occurs in clostridial infection.


17. Ribosomes are located in which part of the cell ?

a) Golgi complex

b) Lysosomes

c) Mitochondria

d) Rough endoplasmic reticulum

e) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum


Correct Answer: d) Rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes ‘read’ the messenger RNA created from the nuclear DNA and translate it to create proteins via transfer RNA. There are free ribosomes in the cytoplasm of cells but they are in abundance in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.


18. Uric Acid : Pathology MCQ

Which pathological process increases the production of uric acid ?


a) Acute renal failure

b) Chronic renal failure

c) Hodgkin lymphoma

d) Hyperparathyroidism

e) Hypothyroidism


Correct Answer: c) Hodgkin lymphoma. All the other processes increase uric acid concentration but do this by reducing renal excretion.


19. Natural killer cells belong to which cell type ?

a) Basophils

b) Eosinophils

c) Lymphocytes

d) Monocytes

e) Neutrophils


Correct Answer: c) Lymphocytes. Natural killer cells are large granular lymphocytes. They display cytotoxic activity against a wide range of tumour cells and virally infected cells. They differentiate these targets from the normal cells by means of two different types of receptors on their surface. NK cells bridge the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system.


20. Where do Call-Exner bodies occur ?

a) granulosa cell tumor

b) theca cell tumor

c) dysgerminoma

d) brenners tumor

Correct Answer: a) Granulosa cell tumor, granulosa cells show tendency to arrange themselves in small clusters or rosettes around a central cavity, so there is resemblance to primordial follicles i.e. Call-Exner bodies. Granulosa cell tumor are sex cord-stromal tumor and is a low grade malignancy. These tumors secrete estrogen and seen in women of all ages. 75% of these tumors are associated with pseudoprecosity because of estrogen secretion. Most women have menstrual irregularities or secondary amenorrhea and cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium is frequently present.

(Ref – Novak’s Gynecologyy)

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