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Dr.Niraj Mahajan
Dr.Niraj Mahajan
Dr.Niraj Mahajan


What is it?

Contraceptives are a birth control method, (to prevent pregnancy even after having sexual intercourse)

Contraceptive choice is in part dependent on the effectiveness of the contraceptive method in preventing unplanned pregnancy, which, in turn, is dependent for some methods not only on the protection afforded by the method itself, but also on how consistently and correctly it is used.


Following are the most common types of birth control methods

Following are the most common types of birth control methods

Oral contraceptive Pill (Oral Pills)

Contains two hormones (estrogen and progestogen). Prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries. It is >99% effective with correct and consistent use. Reduces risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer.


Small, flexible rods or capsules placed under the skin of the upper arm; contains progestogen hormone only. It is 99% effective with correct and consistent use. It can be used for 3–5 years depending on implant; irregular vaginal bleeding common but not harmful.

Injectable Contraception

Injected into the muscle every 2 or 3 months, depending on product. It is >99% effective with correct and consistent use. Irregular vaginal bleeding common, but not harmful.

Intrauterine device (IUD): Copper containing

Small flexible plastic device containing copper sleeves or wire that is inserted into the uterus. Copper component damages sperm and prevents it from meeting the egg. It is >99% effective. Longer and heavier periods during first months of use are common but not harmful; can also be used as emergency contraception.

Mirena - Hormone containing Intrauterine device

A T-shaped plastic device inserted into the uterus that steadily releases small amounts of progesterone each day. It is the most effective contraceptive >99%. Decreases amount of blood lost with menstruation over time; Reduces menstrual cramps and symptoms of endometriosis; amenorrhea (no menstrual bleeding) in a group of users.

Male condoms

Sheaths or coverings that fit over a man's erect penis. It is 98% effective with correct and consistent use. Also protects against sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
Calendar method or rhythm method

Women monitor their pattern of menstrual cycle over 6 months, subtracts 18 from shortest cycle length (estimated 1st fertile day) and subtracts 11 from longest cycle length (estimated last fertile day). The couple prevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected vaginal sex during the 1st and last estimated fertile days, by abstaining or using a condom. It is 91% effective with correct and consistent use.

Standard Days Method

Women track their fertile periods (usually days 8 to 19 of each 26 to 32 day cycle) using cycle beads or other aids. Prevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected vaginal sex during most fertile days. It is 95% with consistent and correct use. Correct, consistent use requires partner cooperation.

Withdrawal (coitus interruptus)

Man withdraws his penis from his partner's vagina, and ejaculates outside the vagina, keeping semen away from her external genitalia. One of the least effective methods, because proper timing of withdrawal is often difficult to determine, leading to the risk of ejaculating while inside the vagina. It is 96% effective with correct and consistent use

Emergency contraception

Emergency contraception, or post-coital contraception, refers to methods of contraception that can be used to prevent pregnancy in the first few days after intercourse. It is intended for emergency use following unprotected intercourse 

"Authored By Dr.Niraj Mahajan"

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Dr. Niraj Mahajan

MD- Gynecologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon, Uro-gynecologist , Infertility specialist & Cosmetic Gynecologist.

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