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Dr.Niraj Mahajan
Dr.Niraj Mahajan
Dr.Niraj Mahajan


What is urogenital fistula?

Abnormal connection between bladder, the female genital tract and the bladder, urethra, or ureters is known as a urogenital fistula.There are two common types of urogenital fistulas

  • Vesicovaginal fistula- vaginal fistula opening in urinary tract
  • Ureterovaginal fistulas- vaginal fistula opening in ureter

Vesicovaginal fistula is about three times more common than ureterovaginal fistulas, however, in extremely rare conditions these two can occur simultaneously.


A fistula starts with any kind of damage to the tissue and then opens up. Various causes for this can be:

  • surgery of vagina, anus or rectum
  • Hysterectomy
  •  inflammatory bowel disease
  • treatment for pelvic cancer
  • infected  episiotomy


  • urinary incontinence- inability to control urination
  • overflow incontinence
  • infected or sore genital area
  • foul-smelling discharge from vagina
  • foul-smelling gas from vagina

Diagnosis tests

  • physical examination of the pelvic region
  • dye-test -A dye is injected into the bladder, and its path is traced using imaging techniques
  • blood test
  • urine analysis
  • X-ray
  • Endoscopy
  • MRI


It is usually treated with surgery but before that certain treatments may be done so that the surgery is possible-

  • Medicine to heal the tissue
  • Colostomy to keep the fistula clear
  • Surgery

It is necessary to take full care after surgery and see the doctor if there are any post-surgery rashes, tenderness, swelling or fever.

Post surgery

  • After surgery, the patient will be asked to urinate to test the response of the bladder and urethra to the surgery.
  • An overnight stay is rarely needed after a laparoscopic surgery. However, in case of open surgery, the recovery period is longer.
  • There might be mild pain in the abdomen after the surgery, which is normal
  • The doctor should be reported to periodically after the surgery, to check for proper functioning of the bladder
  • Any bleeding or abnormal discharge from the vagina should be immediately reported to the doctor

"Authored By Dr.Niraj Mahajan"

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Dr. Niraj Mahajan

MD- Gynecologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon, Uro-gynecologist , Infertility specialist & Cosmetic Gynecologist.

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