The Uterus, or womb, is the main part of the female reproductive system, where the fertilized egg, plants itself and grows into a fetus.
It is also the site where the unfertilized eggs, plant themselves and then are shed along with the endometrium during every menstrual cycle.
Any abnormalities in the uterus can cause problems with the woman's fertility, or to the fetus if the woman is pregnant.
These abnormalities can be present since birth (congenital) or develop later in life (acquired).
The Uterus develops in the female embryo during the 10th week of pregnancy by the fusing of Müllerian ducts. Failure to do so can cause a uterine abnormality.
The problems with the uterus due to this are
Septate Uterus - The uterus is divided into 2 sections by a muscular wall, which is a remainder of the Müllerian ducts that the body did not breakdown.
Bicornate Uterus - Uterus is made of two partially or completely joined cavities, caused due to incomplete fusing of the Müllerian ducts
Didelphic Uterus - The Müllerian ducts do not fuse, resulting in 2 separate Uteruses.
Unicornate Uterus - One Müllerian duct fails to form, resulting in formation of only half the uterus
Due to this, there is a risk of miscarriage (pregnancy loss that occurs before 20 weeks of pregnancy), premature birth, poor fetal growth, Cesarean birth, etc.
Acquired problems of the uterus are
Fibroids - abnormal growths of muscular tissue
Uterine adhesions - abnormal scar tissue
The risks due to these problems are also quite similar to those of congenital problems, with infertility being the most serious one.
Uterine Abnormalities are diagnosed by-
Imaging techniques such as MRI, CT scans, X-rays, etc.
In some cases, a laparoscope is used to visualize the inner lining of the uterus to detect any abnormalities.
Laparoscope can also be used to see problems with other pelvic organs.
Uterine problems can range from less severe ones such as fibroids to life threatening problems such as a malignant cancer. The treatment depends upon the severity of the problem, the age of the patient and the overall health.
Hormonal therapies are used to treat problems of the endometrial lining, wherein human sex hormones are used to facilitate the shedding of the endometrial lining.
Surgical procedures involve Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus), chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancers, etc.
After treatment, it is important to keep the doctor reported regularly about any problems.
In case of surgical treatment, proper rest should be taken after surgery for rehabilitation. Laparoscopic surgeries do not require longer rest periods.
Contact the doctor immediately in case of any abnormal bleeding or discharge from the vagina.
"Authored By Dr.Niraj Mahajan"
MD- Gynecologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon, Uro-gynecologist , Infertility specialist & Cosmetic Gynecologist.Read more [+]